With Heisenberg’s discovery of uncertainty principle in 1927, uncertainty entered in the realm of physics. Means exact nature of outside reality can never be observed by any scientific instrument (microscope) without disturbing it. But according to Vedanta, we can know the exact reality of inside and outside at the state of Samadhi when our individual consciousness get merged into universal consciousness. Albert Einstein refused to accept uncertainty principle by saying that there may be any hidden variable behind this principle. But consciousness acts as a hidden variable. Search for the ultimate particles of the universe has failed because they found no particle exists independently at femto level (sub-atomic level) but they are interconnected. At the subatomic level, there is no particle but the dynamic pattern of interconnected energy. Again bootstrap theory and string theory show particle is not independent but interconnected. Holon theory shows that sub-atomic particles are connected to the whole universe and physicist David Bohm’s “Implicate Order” connected movement of the single subatomic particle to movement of the whole universe. In Vedanta, everything is fundamentally interconnected by a common background the Brahma (universal consciousness). In the famous Schrodinger’s Cat experiment, it is the consciousness which creates the reality outside that whether the cat is dead or alive. The same thing is proposed by Vedanta that this world is transitory and created by our consciousness. Experimental verification is Bell’s theorem by David Bohm, Clause, Freedman and Alain Aspect show that signal or cause moving faster than light is possible. It cannot be explained by local cause-effect and established non-local cause and non-local effect. The same thing is proposed by Vedanta “Aghatana-ghatana patiyasi Maya” (means in this space-time-causation world of Maya thing can happen without any local cause.) String theory works at higher dimension, higher dimensions are the different layers of consciousness. In quantum mechanical tunneling, electron sometimes shows wave nature and sometimes particle nature because some consciousness is inherited inside the electron. This idea is also supported by physicist Freeman Dyson of Princeton. In 1970 Cambridge astrophysicist Brandon Cater developed Anthropic Principle means human-like intelligence (Consciousness) behind universe to consciousness guide and manipulate the universe. The same thing is proposed by Vedanta, everything living and non-living is interpenetrated by Brahman the all-pervading consciousness. This consciousness is responsible for the non-local effect. Similarity between Modern Physics and Vedanta
Galileo separates the Physics from Aristotle’s ideas of Philosophy and established it on the sound basement of physical experiments. Perhaps he never thought that things like uncertainty principle and era of thought experiments will come in the domain of Physics. Slowly Galileo’s and Newton’s experimental physics moved towards theoretical physics through quantum mechanics. Therefore physics and thought experiments showed that physics is moving slowly from physical experiments to thought experiments (consciousness) of Human. In Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum mechanics by J.A. Wheeler first time physicist accepted that it is a consciousness that creates a reality outside at sub femto level. It is explained well by a thought experiment that is famous Schrödinger’s cat experiment. It is the consciousness that killed Schrödinger’s Cat in this experiment and only one aspect of matter appear to us. Other landmark development in Quantum Mechanics is the experimental verification of Bell’s Theorem. It states that two photons are entangled with each other at large distance also. They pass information instantly e.g. faster than the speed of light. How the speed faster than light is possible? It is possible only through consciousness interpenetrated, pervading in the universe of living and non- living things. This is also proclaimed by Vedanta (2).Another discovery is Holon-theory that momentum of a single particle is connected to the movement of all the particles in the system not only material but consciousness connection is also there. This is called “ Implicate Order “as claimed by David Bohm (2). Unbroken wholeness and implicate mixed order theory of David Bohm is quite in accordance with Vedanta theory of one universal consciousness (Brahma). Here Brahma is Vedantic Brahma e.g. universal soul or universal consciousness. In Taitiriyo Upanishad first mantra “Satyam Gyanam Anantam Brahman.”(4) Means Brahma is truthful, knowledgeable and Infinite. On all above, the latest discovery by J.A. Wheeler, Noble physicist Eugene Wigner asserted that consciousness is metaphysical entity, not material, brought science from realm of matter to realm of experienced philosophy of consciousness or Vedanta. All above discoveries and philosophies are discussed below in detail one by one.
1. Uncertainty Principle:
we cannot know reality exactly with the help of scientific instruments. As statement ∆x. ∆p ≥ h/4 ∏ called uncertainty principle states. Heisenberg explains this principle by his famous experiment “Gedanken experiment” or thought experiment. Means Heisenberg imagined a super microscope of extraordinary high power. For this, we need high energetic electromagnetic wave so that we obtain a clear picture of electrons. But if use such highly energetic electromagnetic wave, this wave will disturb the electron from the initial position and we obtain a disturbed image but not exact. But if we use electromagnetic wave of low energy to see the electron or subatomic particle then we cannot observe subatomic particles clearly. So we cannot know the truth exactly with help of scientific instrument or microscope. But through spiritual Vedantic meditation path, Truth can be known by exactly. In the state of Samadhi (well awaken state) individual consciousness gets merged with universal consciousness. Individual feel that his/ her body get extended in the universe. In recent period, this experienced claimed by Shri Maa (disciple of Shri Maharishi Aurobindo) and Aurobindo himself. In this state nature reveals itself without any disturbance or boundaries because at this time individual is observing through consciousness not through material Instrument.
2. Uncertainty Principle and Hidden variable:
Einstein hidden variable of uncertainty principle is nothing but consciousness: Albert Einstein never believed in uncertainty principle till his death. Einstein believed that there cannot be any indeterminacy in the world of physics. So in 1933 Einstein claimed that there must be a “hidden variable” somewhere which is responsible for his uncertainty (2). In his whole life neither Einstein nor other scientists could find the hidden variable. Even until today no such hidden variable was found. This hidden variable is nothing but consciousness of individual. In 1961 noble physicist Eugene Wigner claimed that it is the “Consciousness of the scientist which is itself the hidden variable “(2). We also fully agree with above views of Eugene Wigner that consciousness of the scientist is directly responsible for the ultimate knowledge of reality brought the Modern physics at the door of Vedanta. This hidden variable was discovered by an Indian sage 4000 years ago at the state of Samadhi.
3. Uncertainty Principle Verses cause and effect:
According to classical or Newtonian physics the universe is like a perfect clock. If we know position of its parts at present then we can predict its position in future exactly. Laplace claimed that events occur in deterministic way according to the law of cause and effect (also called Laplacian determinism). Due to emergence of uncertainty principle sure cause cannot be find out exactly behind any effect. By same proclamation made by Vedanta we cannot know the real cause of world or worldly events by the materialistic way because the real cause of world or worldly events is Brahma which can only be known by purified mind through meditation on the psychic plane. Brahma is behind all glow of sun and stars as in Manduko Upanishad 10th mantra “Tasya (Brahma’s) bhasa sarvam idam vibhati”(4).Due to the uncertainty principle, physics especially quantum physics no longer remains exact science. Niels Bohr remark on this aspect of quantum physics is “ It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about Nature.”(2)
4. Is science objective or subjective:
Reality is neither objective nor subjective but omnijective in quantum world. In macro world reality is purely objective means reality is independent of individual or scientist thinking. In other words scientist thinking or scientific instrument does not affect the reality. Observer is independent of observed. But at femto level observation in quantum world scientist or observer is both actor and participator because he affect the reality outside. His instrument affect the reality outside at much extent. We think that this universe is made up of mass and energy so thinking is a kind of vibration energy it may affect that objective reality. So reality which come to us is Reality = subjective + objective (Thinking or of observer + (things to be observed)Vibration energy of thoughts) This idea is also supported by Michael Talbot is his book “Mysticism and New Physics”. Similar idea given by Vedanta especially Sankhya Philosophy. The Reality = Purusha + Prakriti (Subjective + (material world.) or consciousness Of observer) Means reality is manifested to us by combination of Purusha and consciousness Prakriti .
5. Schrödinger’s Cat Experiment:
It is consciousness which creates reality outside. Electron behaves like wave in electron diffraction experiment and same electron behaves like particle in photoelectric effect. Neutron also shows dual behavior. All particles show dual behavior but we can observed only one outcome either wave or particle in an experiment at a time. Later on the concept of wavicles comes into the picture means that matter is wavicles means wave and particle (both) at same time. On the other side the Schrödinger’s Wave equation predicts two equally probable outcomes of the same real particle. Two outcomes branch into four, eight, sixteen and so on to infinite possibilities that depend on certain initial conditions. It seems that single electron in Schrödinger’s wave can appear at same instant simultaneously in many form. Max born introduced the concept of probability waves. At this time, in order to resolve above confusion about electron, Schrödinger introduced a throught experiment called Schrödinger’s Cat experiment. According to this experiment a live cat is kept in the black box. The box has got mechanical device which will eject one electron. In the box, a poisonous bulb containing radioactive material is also present. If ejected electron acts as a particle then bulb will be broken and poisonous radioactive material comes out and live cat will die. On when other hand if ejected electron acts as wave then bulb will not break and cat remains alive. What happened to cat if ejected electron move both as a wave and particle? Is cat dead or alive or both? Answer of this question is given by many ways, known as different interpretations of quantum physics. First answer is that nothing can be said about cat until reality is observed by opening the box. This is known as Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum physics. One answer is that either cat is dead or alive. Only one possibility will emerge and second probability will collapse also known as Copenhagen collapse. Another interpretation given by Graham, Hugh Everett and John A, Wheeler that Schrödinger’s wave equation is a real thing. Hence all possibilities that it represents is real and they all happen. This is known as many world Interpretation of quantum physics. We can see world according to our state of consciousness. The Schrödinger cat is alive and dead at same time. It is dead for them who choose to see it dead and on other hand it is alive for those who choose it to see alive. Similar inference is drawn by Vedanta also “Drisyah Dhivrittayah Drik Drisyah Viveka,” Means all the scenes before us are projection of our intellect in the presence of our consciousness similar claim also made Sankhaya philosophy Reality = Prakriti ( Material World) + Purusha (Consciousness)
6. Some Consciousness is inherited in matter:
Erwin Schrödinger described electron as standing waves, Max Born described electron as probability waves. But in the famous Young’s Double-Slit Experiment, electron shows very strange behavior. Electron stated from their source as particle and reach target screen as wave and hence show interference pattern at screen. But if we try to observe the path of electron in between source and screen then electron shows particle character on screen. On other hand if we do not observe electron’s path, then it shows wave character on screen. Why electron do so. Is he intelligent enough that when we try to observe its path, it changes its nature as conscious being generally do. In Quantum Mechanical Tunneling electron when face big barrier, it surmounts it by transforming itself into a wave and then again move as a particle. This type of phenomenon is displayed only by living organisms. It means some consciousness is inherited inside the electron which is taking decision. Physicist Freeman Dyson of Princeton supports this idea and said that mind is always inherited in electron. Consciousness differ in living and non- living body in degrees only. Living body have higher consciousness but non living body have low amount of consciousness. Similar claim made by Vedanta “Sarvam Khalu Idam Brahma” (Everything in this universe is Brahma or universal consciousness) or everything living and non living is interpenetrated by Brahma- the all pervading consciousness.
7. String theory:
According to string theory, the elementary particles, the building blocks of the universe are not separate point particle but they are in form of strings. Three generations of quarks and six flavors of leptons are basic particle. These quarks and electron are actually linear tiny strings are smallest elementary particles of universe. String theorists say that string theory is “Theory of everything (TOE)”. In reductionist way they hope that everything reduce to string. They say that string theory work at higher dimension say in 10 to 11 or 26 dimensions. In everyday world we can visualize only up to three dimension. Where are extra dimensions hidden? We think these extra dimension are the different layers of consciousness which can be attained through meditation. Detection of massless particle Graviton is also possible in higher dimension at psychic plane means at higher conscious level graviton may be detected.
8. Universe is fundamentally interconnected by common background – Brahma (Universal consciousness):
At femto level particles are no longer separate but they are interconnected. Bootstrap theory and string theory also show this interconnection at deeper level. According to Arthur Koestler in his Holon theory, the sub atomic particle is connected to rest of the universe. Physicist David Bohm also connected this concept to his-“ Implicate order” concept. According to implicate order concept the movement of single particle is connected to movement of whole universe. Physicist John wheeler call entire universe as a “ Quantum Foam” in which every particle is linked with other particles. He also refer it as Quantum interconnectedness. Similar proclaim is done by Vedanta also. Thousands years ago Upanishads realized that whole universe is one, interconnected and inter penetrated by Brahma(Universal consciousness).
9. Birth of Quantum Physics from intuition of Scientist guided by ultimate consciousness:
Max Plank is called the father of Quantum physics. When scientist could not explain the photo electric effect and black body radiation with wave nature of light. Including Max Planks, all the scientists of the world were confused about the nature of light. One night in the dream Plank found himself in a pool of light. He heard the sound of his grandfather telling him – “Look Max, everything is made up of subtle energy particle whether it is a element of mater or light. These energy particles flow continuously at a fixed rate”(3). After this guideline in dream Max Plank worked on his research and gave formula E=hν. Dreams are divine in nature in which universal conscious power works and convey our message. Dr. Pranav Pandya V.C. Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya discussed this topic in detail in his book “The Pioneers of Scientific Spirituality”. Max Plank regarded consciousness as of fundamental. He thought that matter is derivative of consciousness.
10. Non local effect and Vedanta:
In classical physics there is a sure local cause behind every event which we observe in surrounding. This local cause precede the effect. Albert Einstein does not believed in non locality and indeterminacy of quantum mechanics. In 1935 Einstein, N. Rosen and B. Podolsky formulated EPR paradox(1). Through this paradox, Einstein tried to prove falsity of indeterminism and non locality. Now in 1964 Irish physicist John Bell’s inequality (1) comes into picture to test above non – locality and quantum indeterminism. If Bell’s inequality hold then there will be local cause behind quantum effect but if Bell’s Inequality does not hold then there will be non local distant cause behind quantum event in quantum world. But calculations show that Bell’s inequality does not hold. Means inequality indeed violated which is confirmed in 1972 by Berkeley researcher Freedman and John Alauser.(5) Now non local cause is established in quantum world experimentally. Similar proclaim made by Vedanta also in following Sutra. “Aghatana – ghatana patiyasi- maya” (2). Means in this space – time –causation world of Maya things can happen without any local cause. Actually universal consciousness is responsible for non local effect. Hence universal consciousness is the non local cause in quantum world.
11.Quantum Entanglement and Vedanta:
John Bell(6) proposed the theorem of inequality and established the concept of quantum entanglement. According to his mathematical inequality if inequality holds then there is Einstein’s local hidden variable responsible for quantum entanglement and if inequality does not hold then there is no local hidden variable responsible for quantum entanglement .The word “quantum entanglement” was coined by Schrödinger to describe quantum state . Entanglement means if one system is observed and changed the other system is changed as well as automatically no matter what the distance between them. Means the both system remain entangled to each other at long distance also. In 1982 this quantum entanglement was experimentally verified by French Physicist Alain Aspect. Physicist David Bohm, John Clauser and Freeman also verified the quantum entanglement experimentally. They proved that two similar photon or twin photon always and instantaneously communicate with each other. In 1997 Austrian quantum physicist Anton Zeillinger and colleagues report in Nature (International Science magazine) the first experimental verification of quantum teleportation. Means we can send information instantaneously. In 2008 Gisin and colleagues measured entangled photons 18 km apart exactly at same time. They calculated that signals travel 1000 times faster than speed of light(5). The question is that how signal is traveling faster than light? Einstein theory of relativity shows that no signal can travel faster than light. How almost instantaneously communication is possible? Einstein could not accept this non – local communication. He again said that any hidden variable is responsible for this non local communication. Even he called this non – local communication as spooky action at a distance. But this spooky action is experimentally proved now. How this is possible? How signal is travelling faster than speed of light? Vedanta gives answer of that. Vedanta say there is no communication is necessary between two system as both are floating on the background of one universal consciousness(2). This universal consciousness pervading in all space, living and non–living beings. As Vedanta Sutra says. “Sarvam Khalu Idam Brahma” – Chandaogya Upanishad. Also in Manduko Upanishad second mantra “Sarvam Hye Tad Brahma”(4). Ancient Indian sages were communicated on this universal consciousness 3000 year before the Bell’s theorem discovery.
Anthropic means human like. Anthropic principle (2) given by Cambridge astrophysicist Brandon cater in 1970. It states that human like intelligence is working behind this universe. Means universal consciousness is working behind this universe. Balance between gravitation force and strong force is fine tuned that if it vary even 1(one) part in 1040 that would destroy the stars such as our Sun also. Electron and proton have exactly same and opposite charge. Value of planks constants and Gravitational constant have fixed value if their value change slightly, situation would be very different. Why everything including planet are in perfect ordered state? Why speed of light is constant? Answers to these questions is that any super conscious power is working behind this universe. Physicist Dr. Amit Goswami support and discussed this in detail his book “Self Aware Universe”. This idea is also supported by Vedanta that universal consciousness or Brahma is supreme intelligent power behind this universe. Vedic Sutra “ Eko Asimin Bahusayam” show that there is universal consciousness behind creation of this universe.
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(2) Jitatmanand ,Swami (2006) Modern Physics and Vedanta 40,43,117,133,143149. Mumbai :Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan .
(3) Pranav Pandya, Dr. (2011).The Pioneers of Scientific Spirituality 28-29. Haridwar :Shri Vedmata Gayatri Trust(TMD).
(4) Hari Krishan Das Goyandka(1998). Ishadinaupanishad 237,258,345 . Gorkhapur:Govind Bhawan Karyalya Gitapress.
(5) Laura Sanders (2010,November 20) Everyday Entanglement. Science News, 178#11, 23-25.
(6) Alain Aspect (1999, March 18) .Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever .Nature, 398, 189-190.
Written by: Devdutt