Lev Davidovich Landau
Lev Davidovich Landau was born on January 22, 1908, in Baku, as an engineer and son of a doctor. Landau was a mathematical singular and energetic.
After graduating from the Physical Department of Leningrad University at the age of 19, he started his scientific career at the Leningrad Physicochemical Institute. Landau did not formally complete some educational stages, such as High School. In the year 1929 – 1931 he spent abroad, partly working as a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow in Germany, Switzerland, England and, in particular, under Neil Bohr in Copenhagen
He never wrote the doctoral thesis, because until 1934 academic degree was abolished and he was not restored. He completed a bachelor course in physics at Leningrad State University, where he studied from 1924 to 1927. In 1934, Mau was awarded the doctorate degree already established scholar.
Still a student, Landau published his first article. During those years in Germany a new theory of quantum mechanics, and the 20-year-old complained that he arrived for a while to participate in the great scientific revolution.
During 1932 – 1937 he was head of the theoretical department of the Ukrainian Physical-Technical Institute in urban center, and since 1937 he was head of the Institute’s theoretical department for the physical issues of the science academy of USR.R in Russian capital. Along with this, he continued to teach as a professor of theoretical physics at Kharkov and Moscow State Universities.
Landau’s work covers all the branches of theoretical physics, from fluid mechanics to quantum field principles. A large part of their letters refers to the principle of condensed state. He started with the creation of a general thermodynamic principle of phase transition of second phase in 1936. After P.L. Kapito’s discovery of Liquid Helium Superfluenti in 1938, Landau started extensive research, which prompted him to create a complete theory of “quantum fluid” at very low temperatures. His letters of 1941 – 1947 are devoted to the theory of quantum fluid of “Bose type”, for which superfluid refers to liquid helium (normal isotope 4He). During 1956-1958, he prepared the theory of quantum fluid of “Fermi type”, in which the isotope 3He refers to liquid helium.
In 1946, he was elected to the U.S.A.R.R. State Science Academy Award and in 1962 he was awarded the Lenin Prize for his theoretical physics curriculum jointly with E.M. Lifshitz.
Landau is a foreign member of the Royal Society, the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences, the Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences, the Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and the Physical Society (London) and the Physical of France Society of Science In 1961, he received Max Planck Medal and Fritz London.
Lev Landau died on 1 April 1968.